A vehicle’s bolt pattern or bolt circle is the diameter of an imaginary circle formed by the centers of the wheel lugs. A majority of today’s vehicles bolt patterns will be 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7- or 8-lug holes. For example, a bolt circle of 5x120 would indicate a 5-lug pattern on a circle with a diameter of 120mm.
More and more manufacturers are building their wheels with two bolt patterns. This expands the number of fitments the wheel applies to. For example: a wheel with a 4x100/114.3 bolt pattern has 8 lug holes and will fit both 4x100mm and 4x114.3mm fitments.
Simply put, the centerbore of a wheel is the large machined hole in the middle of your wheel that is usually covered by a center cap. The center bore of your wheel is machined to the exact diameter as the hub of your vehicle. This allows the wheel to be perfectly centered on the hub of the vehicle, minimizing the chance of vibration while driving.
While your factory wheels are HUB-CENTRIC and are designed to be vehicle specific, aftermarket brands are often designed with a larger center bore, allowing them to fit a wide variety of vehicles and are known as LUG-CENTRIC wheels. As a result of the larger center bore, a small space is left between the vehicle’s hub and the center bore. Usually made of plastic or metal, HUB-CENTRIC RINGS are used to fill this gap, properly centering aftermarket wheels and assuring a vibration-free drive.
Why do I need a hardware kit?
Smaller Pilot Holes
In a majority of cases, aftermarket wheels require new nuts or bolts due to their smaller pilot holes. As a result of a smaller pilot hole, original hardware and designated key will not fit inside an aftermarket wheel. The WheelWiz hardware kit will include the required amount of nuts or bolts, 4 centering rings, 4 valves and a thin wall socket adapter, ensuring you can always remove your wheels in the case of a flat tire or wheel rotation.
The seating of a wheel is the contact area between the hardware and the wheel itself. The 3 most popular seat styles are cone seat, ball seat or flat with washer seat. Aftermarket wheels seating may differ to that of your original equipment wheels. This can results in vibrations and loosening of hardware over time. WheelWiz assures to send the correct hardware to match the specifications of your new wheel and vehicle.
The offset of a wheel is the distance (calculated in millimeters) between a vehicle’s hub mounting surface and the centerline of a wheel. Wheel offsets will fall into one of brackets; Positive, Neutral or Negative.
Positive Offset: Often seen on front wheel drive cars and newer rear wheel drive cars, the hub mounting surface is located closer to the face of the wheel.
Zero Offset: The hub mounting surface is perfectly aligned with the centerline of the wheel.
Negative Offset: Commonly seen on old muscle cars or pickup trucks with lifted suspension, the hub point of negative offset wheels is located closer to the inner lip of the wheel and further away from the spokes.
Aspect Ratio: An expression representing the height of the sidewall of a tire in terms of a percentage of tire's width.
Asymmetric: When opposite sides of a tire's tread pattern are not identical.
Balance/Imbalance: The state in which a tire and wheel spin with all their weight distributed equally. To correct an imbalance, a trained mechanic will add weights on the interior or exterior of the wheel.
Blocks: The individual, raised rubber-compound segments making up the tread of a tire.
Carcass: That portion of a tire that is the foundation for the tread, belts, bead and sidewall.
Casing: The structure of tire cords locked around wire beads.
Chafer: A finishing strip of calendared fabric used to protect the tire's bead area from the rim.
Compound: The general term referring to the chemical formula for the tread material. The main materials used are rubber, carbon black, plasticizers, curing materials and ozone retardants. Different compounding formulas are used to achieve different tire characteristics such as: heat resistance, increased traction, increased treadwear, cut resistance, cold resistance, etc.
DOT (Department of Transportation): The 10 digit code appearing after the DOT designation gives information such as the week and year the tire was produced, as well as the manufacturer, plant, tire line, and size.
Filler: The material used to fill the area above the bead between the outer and inner portion of the sidewall. Also used in enlarged form to stiffen the lower sidewall of a tire.
Grooves: Circumferential channels between the tread ribs of a tire.
Light Truck Tires: Tires designed for off-the-road and on/off-the-road use on sport/utility, small commercial and recreational vehicles.
Load Rating: A method of rating a tire's load-carrying capacity (denoted by letters such as B, C, D, etc.) with respect to its ply rating.
Low-Profile: A term describing a tire with a low relative aspect ratio or series classification.
M+S: A sidewall marking indicating that the tire is approved for Mud & Snow use. This approval is made by the RMA (Rubber Manufacturers Association).
Metric Tire Size System: A tire sizing system using the section width (mm), aspect ratio, speed category, tire construction and the rim diameter (inches). Example: 185/70SR13.
P-metric System: A tire sizing system using the section width (mm), aspect ratio, type of tire construction and rim diameter (inches). Example: P225/45R17.
Ply: A layer of rubber-coated fabric or wire making up the tire casing.
Radial Tire: A tire built with casing plies that cross the crown at an angle of 90 degrees.
Ribs: Parts of a tire tread pattern created by grooves that run circumferentially around the tire.
Rolling resistance: The force required to keep a tire moving at a uniform speed. The lower the rolling resistance, the less energy needed to keep a tire moving.
Series: A numerical representation of a tire's aspect ratio; for example, 50 series.
Shoulder Blocks: Raised rubber-compound segments on the part of the tire tread nearest the sidewall.
Sipes: Slits in the tire tread. Small cuts in the surface of the tread to improve traction.
Staggering: A staggered fitment is putting larger wheels on the back of your vehicle than the front of your vehicle.
Steel Belt: A belt material used in radial tires. Its high stiffness provides good handling and low treadwear.
Stud Holes: Small cavities along a tire's tread designed to hold tire studs for increased traction on snow-covered surfaces.
Tire Profile: A term representing the portion of a tire measured as its aspect ratio or series.
Tread Blocks: Raised rubber-compound segments on the outside visible part of a tire.
UTQG: Uniform Tire Quality Grade. A government-mandated tire rating system based on a tire's performance in treadwear durability, traction and temperature resistance. UTQG ratings are branded on a tire's sidewall.
Proper storage of your wheels and tires is vital to preserve your wheels and keep them looking new. Here are a few useful tips to ensure proper storage and avoid premature wear.
-Wheels should be cleaned and dried thoroughly prior to storage.
-Be sure to remove center caps from your wheels before storage.
-Keep your chrome or machined wheels away from harsh winter conditions. Salt and calcium will cause them to pit and wear prematurely. Fully painted finishes are best suited for rough winter climates.
-Store your wheels away from humidity, direct sunlight and direct heat sources.
-To avoid the possibility of flat spots, store your mounted packages lying flat, piled one on top of the other.
-Avoid storing wheels in tire bags. Humidity buildup and calcium residue may tarnish the finish.
Regular cleaning and maintenance of your alloy wheels will keep them looking new and squeaky clean. Here are a few tips on how to clean your wheels and keep them looking best.
-Be sure to only wash your wheels when they are cold. Do not wash wheels while they are hot from driving, this may damage the finish.
-On chrome or machined finishes, only use mild detergents. Strong abrasive cleaners may negatively impact delicate finishes by deteriorating the clear coat. A golden rule of thumb we use: If you wouldn’t use it on your hands, don’t use it on your wheels!
-Be sure to use a soft washing mitt or sponge. Avoid using brushes or abrasive pads, they could damage your finish.
-Apply a coat of car wax three to four times per year. A coat of wax will maintain a new look longer and will make wheels easier to clean. Be sure to reapply as needed.